Cow blood - A superior storage option in forensics?
Ursula Windberger Medical University of Vienna
Andreas Sparer Medical University of Vienna
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Given the use of modified blood products (e.g. leucocyte depleted erythrocyte concentrates in SAG-mannitol, dehydrated blood powder, defibrinated blood), drawing blood from conscious animals while minimizing their stress is a good option to obtain blood for bloodstain pattern analysis. Nevertheless, the blood must be well described since individual differences in quality can occur, and storage will influence blood components qualitatively and quantitatively. Cow has been discussed as a suitable source of blood supply, but current data lack hematological and full rheological perspectives. This project includes the respective parameters in combination with passive drip pattern experiments during refrigerated storage in multiple study arms. Cow blood displayed a constant increase in viscosity (at high shear rate: 1000s-1), reflecting the expected reduction in red blood cell (RBC) flexibility. RBCs shrank but remained intact with very few irregular shapes, therefore there was no evidence of hemolysis. Influence of storage on stain size in passive drip pattern experiments with different substrates was minimal. However in cows, it is not hemolysis but an early change in suspension properties that indicates storage lesion. Viscosity (at low shear rate: 1s-1) of some blood samples increased three-fold (peaking at day 14), transitioning sharply to near-Newtonian (almost shear-independent) behavior thereafter. The higher this increase in viscosity, the greater the increase in the number of satellite spatter on glass. In order to ensure high quality simulations in the future, comprehensive rheological analyses to detect gradual changes in blood pseudoplasticity should be implemented in the forensic discipline of bloodstain pattern analysis.
This work is licensed under a
CC BY 4.0 - Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
CC BY 4.0 International
Erythrocyte-Membrane; Oligomeric State; Bank Storage; Band-3; Viscosity; Stability; Protein
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